The History of London

The capital city of England and the United Kingdom is London, which has a history that spans over 2,000 years. Today, it is one of the world’s most important financial and cultural capitals. London has its share of tragic past, such as the Great Fire, constant aerial attacks, plagues, terrorist infiltrations, and civil war. The main financial and historical hub is the City of London, a small part of the bigger city of Greater London.

London got its name during the 1st century when it came under the rule of the Romans. The frequent use of Londin and Lundin during the Roman era must have paved the way for it to be called Londinium when it became the Romans’ commercial center.

Pre-historic London was a tiny pastoral area with few settlers. The area may have been small, but finding the Battersea Shield in the Thames, which dates back to that period, signified its importance. Other excavations in the Thames yielded rich finds, like a number of timbers constructed vertically into the ground that suggests that the Thames is a boundary, with a bridge to cross an island, and other kinds of weapons that include spearheads.

It was during the Roman times in 410 AD that Londinium was created as a small town that is just the size of Hyde Park. Queen Boudica and the Iceni destroyed the small town, but it was re-constructed by the Romans within a decade, after which it rapidly flourished to eventually become the capital of Roman Britain (Britannia).

During the 5th century, the Anglo-Saxons settled just outside the walls that the Romans have erected, and established a trading post somewhere between the areas of Aldwych and Trafalgar Square. Excavations dating back to that era show sophistication in the way the area was organized, which followed a pattern that suggested a big population of some 10-12,000 people.


The Norman London happened during late 15th century and was characterized by strong fortresses, including the infamous Tower of London. It was also at this the time when the first stone castle of England was built, when the wooden wall was entirely replaced by stone. The Normans did this to show their domination over the native population.